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Moscow (city, Russia) (Russian Moskva), capital and largest city of Russia, capital of Moscow Oblast, and the country’s leading political, cultural, economic, and transportation center. Moscow lies on the Moscow River in the west central European part of Russia.

The Russian rulers, or tsars, made Moscow their base of command until 1712, when the capital was moved to Saint Petersburg. Moscow was restored as Russia’s capital in 1918, and it served as the capital of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) from 1922 until 1991.